The Impact of Prolonged Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Associated Psychopathology in People Living with HIV: A Randomized Test of Concept.
AIDS Behav. 2011 Oct 20;
Authors: Pacella ML, Armelie A, Boarts J, Wagner G, Jones T, Feeny N, Delahanty DL
People living with HIV (PLWH) report elevated levels of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) and associated comorbidities. The present study tested the efficacy of prolonged exposure (PE) at reducing PTSS, depression, negative posttraumatic cognitions, and substance use in PLWH. Participants were randomly assigned to receive PE (n = 40) or to a weekly monitoring control group (n = 25). Assessments occurred at baseline, post-intervention and 3-months post-treatment. Following the 3-month assessment, controls were offered the intervention. All PE recipients (whether originally from the PE or control group) completed a 6-month assessment. Intent-to-treat mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted through 3-months post-treatment; within group analyses were conducted through 6-months. PE recipients reported fewer PTSS and negative posttraumatic cognitions and were more likely to achieve good end-state functioning; gains were maintained at 6-months. No between-group differences emerged for substance use. Overall, results support the efficacy of PE in PLWH.
PMID: 22012149 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]free previews, g jones, control group, ptsd books, prolonged exposure
BMC Res Notes. 2011 Oct 17;4(1):415
Authors: Vera M, Reyes-Rabanillo ML, Juarbe D, Perez-Pedrogo C, Olmo A, Kichic R, Chaplin WF
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most of the empirical studies that support the efficacy of prolonged exposure (PE) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been conducted on white mainstream English-speaking populations. Although high PTSD rates have been reported for Puerto Ricans, the appropriateness of PE for this population remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of providing PE to Spanish speaking Puerto Ricans with PTSD. Particular attention was also focused on identifying challenges faced by clinicians with limited experience in PE. This information is relevant to help inform practice implications for training Spanish-speaking clinicians in PE. RESULTS: Fourteen patients with PTSD were randomly assigned to receive PE (n = 7) or usual care (UC) (n = 7). PE therapy consisted of 15 weekly sessions focused on gradually confronting and emotionally processing distressing trauma-related memories and reminders. Five patients completed PE treatment; all patients attended the 15 sessions available to them. In UC, patients received mental health services available within the health care setting where they were recruited. They also had the option of self-referring to a mental health provider outside the study setting. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was administered at baseline, mid-treatment, and post-treatment to assess PTSD symptom severity. Treatment completers in the PE group demonstrated significantly greater reductions in PTSD symptoms than the UC group. Forty percent of the PE patients showed clinically meaningful reductions in PTSD symptoms from pre- to post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PE appears to be viable for treating Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking patients with PTSD. This therapy had good patient acceptability and led to improvements in PTSD symptoms. Attention to the clinicians’ training process contributed strongly to helping them overcome the challenges posed by the intervention and increased their acceptance of PE.
PMID: 22005187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]practice implications, puerto ricans, ptsd symptoms, abstract background, Spanish speaking Puerto Ricans, mental health services, pe group
Original Research: Documentation of Screening for Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence in Male Veterans with PTSD.
Am J Nurs. 2011 Oct 14;
Authors: Gerlock AA, Grimesey JL, Pisciotta AK, Harel O
A retrospective cohort study finds that screening was documented for only a quarter of the veterans seeking treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. BACKGROUND: Men seeking care for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are believed to have high rates of relationship conflict and intimate partner violence (IPV). But little is known about screening for IPV perpetration in this population. OBJECTIVE: In phase one of a two-phase study of male veterans treated for PTSD, the primary objective was to determine how many veterans’ records showed documentation that they’d been screened for IPV perpetration. The secondary objective was to count the total number of screenings and to determine whether an initial screening affected future screenings. METHODS: For this retrospective cohort study, a stratified random sample of 10% (N = 507) of all male veterans receiving treatment for PTSD at a U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care facility in a five-year period (November 2002 to November 2007) was selected and more than 70,000 progress notes were reviewed. The presence or absence of a documented screening for IPV perpetration in each record was noted and a Spearman rank correlation test to determine the relationship between the documentation of a first screening and future screenings was performed. RESULTS: Of the 507 records examined, 120 (24%) showed documentation of screening for IPV perpetration. Of those, 73 (61%) showed positive results for IPV perpetration, and 61 (51%) showed more than one screening. Documentation of screening was most likely to have occurred at the veteran’s initial appointment (71%) and in an outpatient mental health setting (72%); IPV perpetration was determined most often as the result of a provider’s inquiry (45%). There was a total of 415 screenings, including 356 in records in which there was more than one screening. The documentation of a single screening for IPV perpetration was significantly correlated with the documentation of subsequent screenings and with IPV perpetration determination (Spearman rank correlation = 0.611, P < 0.001). Also, veterans with documented IPV perpetration and high rates of relationship conflict accessed the health care system twice as often as those without such documentation. CONCLUSIONS: In the sample analyzed, fewer than a quarter of male veterans with PTSD had a documented screening for IPV perpetration. Also, because those identified as IPV perpetrators accessed the health care system at a higher rate than those not so identified and repeated screenings were associated with a higher rate of IPV perpetrator determinations, health care providers should be made more aware of opportunities for screening for IPV in this population.
PMID: 22005050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]outpatient mental health, research documentation, stratified random sample, phase study, department of veterans affairs, initial screening
Altered salivary alpha-amylase awakening response in Bosnian War refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Oct 14;
Authors: Thoma MV, Joksimovic L, Kirschbaum C, Wolf JM, Rohleder N
In posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has been suggested. No study so far has investigated diurnal secretion patterns of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in PTSD, a promising candidate for non-invasive assessment of SNS activity. We compared sAA diurnal profiles between a group of Bosnian War refugees with PTSD and a healthy control group, and further analyzed for associations with psychiatric symptoms and glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity of inflammatory regulation. PTSD patients showed a sAA awakening response profile that was opposite to those seen in healthy controls, i.e. an increase instead of a sharp decrease. Patterns of sAA secretion were further positively associated with psychiatric symptoms of PTSD. Finally, higher sAA awakening responses were associated with higher GC sensitivity of inflammatory cytokine production. These findings are in line with altered SNS function in PTSD, and lend further support for employing assessment of diurnal sAA profiles as non-invasive biomarkers in stress-related disease.
PMID: 22001009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]control group, psychiatric symptoms, ptsd patients, cytokine production, bosnian war refugees, sympathetic nervous system, alpha amylase