PTSD treatment of African American adults in primary care: the gap between current practice and evidence-based treatment guidelines.
J Natl Med Assoc. 2011 Jul;103(7):585-93
Authors: Graves RE, Freedy JR, Aigbogun NU, Lawson WB, Mellman TA, Alim TN
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, potentially disabling, underdiagnosed, and under-treated illness. Primary care physicians assume a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and referral of African Americans with PTSD since mental health access is limited for this population. This study is an examination of PTSD treatment of African Americans in the primary care setting. Actual treatment provision is contrasted with existing evidence-based PTSD treatment guidelines.
METHOD: Researchers screened 738 consenting, mostly African American, adults in 4 academically affiliated primary care offices for both trauma exposure and mental health symptoms, including PTSD.
RESULTS: Employing criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) (DSM-IV), investigators diagnosed 91 of the participants with current PTSD using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM and the clinician-administered of PTSD Scale for DSM-IV. Treatment statistics include: 69.2% (n=63) had never received treatment from a mental health provider: 18.6% (n=17) were currently seeing a mental health practitioner; nearly half (47.9%, n=24) of a subsample had never discussed traumatic event exposure or mental health symptoms with their primary care doctor; 32% (n=29) were prescribed psychotropic medication and only 18.6% (n=17) were participating in any form of psychotherapy. Concurrent psychiatric disorders were found in 46.2% (n = 42) of the participants with PTSD.
CONCLUSION: Most African American adult primary care patients with PTSD were either undiagnosed or undertreated in this inner-city setting. These results demonstrate a clear need to improve screening and treatment services. Both individual (provider and patient) and system-based changes will be required to meet the demonstrated clinical need.
PMID: 21999033 [PubMed - in process]adult primary care, abstract background, traumatic event, treatment statistics, mental health, psychiatric disorders, mental health provider
Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2011 Oct;5(3):147-54
Authors: Bosson JV, Reuther ET, Cohen AS
The comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms is higher than what might be expected based on the prevalence of either disorder alone. Furthermore, the presence of psychotic symptoms is evident in PTSD patients who do not otherwise meet criteria for a psychotic spectrum disorder. The current paper discusses three existing hypotheses regarding the relation of PTSD and psychosis and presents a series of case studies that illustrates this phenomenon across a diverse group of patients and scenarios. Clinical implications in light of these case studies are offered, including the suggestion that the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders includes a specifier of PTSD with psychotic features.
PMID: 21983499 [PubMed - in process]ptsd patients, oct 5, stress disorder, spectrum disorder
J Anxiety Disord. 2011 Sep 3;
Authors: Elhai JD, Miller ME, Ford JD, Biehn TL, Palmieri PA, Frueh BC
We empirically investigated recent proposed changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis for DSM-5 using a non-clinical sample. A web survey was administered to 585 college students using the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire to assess for trauma exposure but with additions for the proposed traumatic stressor changes in DSM-5 PTSD. For the 216 subjects endorsing previous trauma exposure and nominating a worst traumatic event, we administered the original PTSD Symptom Scale based on DSM-IV PTSD symptom criteria and an adapted version for DSM-5 symptoms, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. While 67% of participants endorsed at least one traumatic event based on DSM-IV PTSD‘s trauma classification, 59% of participants would meet DSM-5 PTSD‘s proposed trauma classification. Estimates of current PTSD prevalence were .4-1.8% points higher for the DSM-5 (vs. the DSM-IV) diagnostic algorithm. The DSM-5 symptom set fit the data very well based on confirmatory factor analysis, and neither symptom set’s factors were more correlated with depression.
PMID: 21944437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]screening questionnaire, ptsd books, epidemiological studies
Psychol Health Med. 2011 Sep 26;
Authors: Abeyasinghe NL, Zoysa PD, Bandara KM, Bartholameuz NA, Bandara JM
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder has been identified as one of the most commonly occurring mental illnesses in combatants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among soldiers who had undergone amputation of a lower or an upper limb or sustained a spinal cord injury in the battlefield, and to compare the prevalence among these categories. The research presented seeks to increase the awareness of this condition among those treating war casualties so that appropriate treatment choices could be made to address them. The study was carried out in 2009 at a rehabilitation centre for combatants of war. Data were collected from 96 male army veterans between the ages of 18-49 years using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Impact of Event Scale and the PTSD symptom scale. Soldiers with injuries sustained at least four weeks prior to the study were selected by a convenience sampling technique. Soldiers with multiple injuries, head injuries or those diagnosed with psychiatric disorders were excluded. The results revealed that 41.7% of the study population was compatible with the diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Within the three groups, 42.5% of the lower limb amputees, 33.3% of the upper limb amputees and 45.7% of the participants with spinal cord injury had symptoms compatible with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. There was no difference between the prevalence among the different injury categories considered. This study highlights the need to pay more attention in providing psychological care as a part of the overall health management of injured combatants. Early preparation of soldiers for stressors of war and screening for and proper management of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder will improve the overall outcome of rehabilitation.
PMID: 21942815 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]mental disorders, injury categories, sampling technique